Frequently Asked Questions

about my statues and sculptures (FAQs)


The First Principle

Art is like speaking. If someone speaks about something that they are really passionate about, which they have real experience of, people want to hear what they are saying.

In my opinion that honesty is the most important principle in making art. It is the reason I founded an art school – I felt that inspiration is really individual – and that in some schools people were being encouraged to make art that wasn’t personal, that was clever, but empty.


Evolving an idea by making a model

A 3d sketch model or ‘maquette’ allows me to change and improve what I see in my head. This might be:

– to better fit a future statue to its intended site – creating stronger views in the round.

– to check whether elements need to be introduced or removed.

– to find new and interesting lines and shapes, or strengthening the intended emphasis.

Favourite moments of inspiration

– Rehoming my staffie Asha from the wonderful Battersea Dogs and Cats home,

– rehabilitating Alice the injured roe deer, here on our farm,

– photographing natural coloured wool threads in streams in Scotland,

– living amongst the eclectic rescue and guest animals (for modelling sculptures from) at my parents house, including otters and snakes!

Inspiration from the natural world

Finding what I wanted to speak about in my sculptures involved spending time amongst the things I loved most. I’m not the only one who finds people harder to ‘get’, compared to the uncomplicated wonder of nature, even in all its intricacy.

Feeling at home in the wild, or with animals – seeing vibrancy, fragility, innocence and constantly being surprised. That’s why I sculpt.

Do you have any goals to achieve inspiration?

I would like to experience more animals in the wild outside of the UK. Having the financial means to do this can be challenging for an artist! 

But there are also more accessible goals, such as taking regular walks in nature. This has become much easier since our move to Wales, but importantly too, it is absolutely free – and yet still one of the most beneficial things for my art. Not only that, but it replenishes our sense of wellbeing, and our love of natural things. It is a constant reminder of the power of the visual arts – of bringing things into people’s view, and reminding them of the importance of our world and its creatures.

Where did you study how to sculpt?

I have an article here showing lots of photos of my journey 🙂

I apprenticed for 7 years with my parents, sculptors Lorne McKean FRBS and Edwin Russell FRBS.

There are actually several well known UK sculptors who apprenticed with them, including Simon Buchanan, Simon Cooley, Joanna Migdal and Alex Watts.

Mum was once described in the Telegraph as one of the world’s greatest equestrian sculptors, and Dad’s public sun sculptures are displayed around the world.

While my parents were both great sculptors, it was a very challenging environment to learn in. And though it was hard, I believe it granted me my strong determination to use all the time I got to make art – and it gifted me with the skills I could use to truly express myself through my sculpting.


Are you inspired by Giacometti?

I understand why some viewers would compare my contemporary styled figures to those of the amazing Alberto Giacometti (1901-1966).

However, when I think about how I started sculpting figures – I first think of my admiration for Egyptian figurative sculpture. I love so much the simplicity and finesse of outline, conveying so much so strongly, with so little apparent effort. Of course, this is deceptive, like watching a swan gliding over water. The skill and thought in the pieces is astounding. Traditional funerary art in particular is so steeped in meaning and symbology, it seems really appropriate to draw upon for the environmental themes and intent in my artwork.  

Where I have freedom to choose my texturing I often choose a looser style, allowing greater evidence of maker’s marks. It has great capacity for creating colour (depths and darks) on the surface of artwork that must often be appreciated from a distance, and could easily from that distance become flat.

This method is drawn from my sculpting of animals, where these kind of marks can also inject dynamism and movement into a statue which is, after all, still. Capturing the vivacity in an animal seems impossible, but every mark left by a finger, each incision, flat or texture is like an infinitesimal attempt to wrestle a little big of that life into a sculpture.

Together, the Egyptian stillness of the figures and the chaotic ‘live’liness of the marks is an uneasy juxtaposition. The semi-abstract style is intended to allow the viewer to inhabit the figures if they choose. And, the theme is meant to bring a fresh consideration of the very personal relationship between people, animals and our world.




A continual exploration

Art is basically a reflection of your life – your art journey is your life journey. It is difficult to talk about this, because so much of my work has been to make a livelihood. But that is the non-financial goal that is behind an artist’s work.

More specifically, spending time with your subject is critical. The more I watch, for example an animal, the more I learn about their physical structure, how they move, how they think. All working towards my effort to really capture who they are.

Do you always make a smaller model?

A 3d sketch model or ‘maquette’ allows me to change and improve what I see in my head.

It might be to better fit a future statue to its intended site – creating stronger views in the round.

It might be finding new and interesting lines and shapes, or strengthening the intended emphasis.

Using a maquette to make a much larger statue

A 3d small model lets me take measurements to see how big bits of the larger sculpture should be – using ratios!

It also where they should be positioned. E.g, a matching grid goes on the small model and also the floor. I suspend a weight on a string (a plumb-line) from the small sculpture. I see on the matching grid that ‘this iris blossom should reach grid square A6’ on my large sculpture.

Can you sculpt nature without damaging it?

Moulding and casting are not environmentally friendly activities. Moulding involves rubber, casting involves resins or metals, chemicals or large amounts of heat.

This caused me to explore ways of making sculpture that was environmentally clean. My project focused on two aspects – firstly the identification and emphasis of existing sculptural and artistic shapes, patterns and colours in nature. Second, the introduction of my own work into that context, with materials that did not damage the nature I was celebrating.

I selected natural fibres like wool, and chose other materials and paints that would have no environmental impact as they degraded. I allowed myself the ability to use very small quantities of metals, if I then gathered them after photographing. And I also experimented with gathering rubbish materials and turning them into sculptures that mimicked natural forms, such as mushrooms and flowers.

Animal welfare and cruelty

I’m intensely influenced by animal welfare – yet rarely sculpt images of cruelty, like ‘Abandoned’ to directly shock, despite how strongly it motivates my work.

This reflects my belief that shock leads eventually to apathy. Meanwhile love, I think, builds constantly to motivation and intervention. I sculpt the beauty of our relationship with animals, because I hope my work reminds us to treasure and fight for animals, their habitats, and our planet.

How else do you try to help animals?

Other than the 10% of sales proceeds that we donate to animal charities, I am constantly pushing to say yes when organisations ask for sculpture donations for fundraisers. I’ve been a volunteer at an animal rescue charity myself – initially helping with the wild and domestic animals they cared for, and later taking on the rehoming of all the dogs who needed loving homes.

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What do you sculpt in?

I sculpt in wax or clay. Both materials are malleable, so can be worked by hand, or using hand tools. The sculptures will later be cast in Bronze Resin or Foundry Bronze metal, but these are not the original sculpting materials.

Water-based clay is soft and so it a wonderful materials for creating loose texturing and natural-looking marks. However, it dries out when exposed to air, so must be carefully covered and kept damp, (but not too wet, or it will collapse).

Clay is generally not appropriate for modelling smaller sculptures or narrow parts of large ones, such as ears or antlers. In these cases it may be better to use a synthetic wax, which will not dry out, but will usually be harder (and so harder to work with and texture).

Does the clay go in a kiln?

No – while clay can be fired in a kiln (though wax cannot), I do not create ceramics – I model, mould and cast into foundry bronze and bronze resin.

My original clay or wax sculpture is actually destroyed in the moulding process (unlike a ceramic, where the original clay survives, being baked in a kiln to create the finished piece).

Simply put, the advantage of this technique is that a mould will allow an edition, a run of copies, to be made. This enables me to price statues more affordably, because the cost of my time and the moulding can be spread over the edition. In comparison, a unique fired ceramic might require a high price to pay for the artist’s time through one sale, despite the material itself not being valuable.

What are your sculptures made of?

The statues available to buy are mainly made of either Foundry Bronze metal, or of Bronze Resin.

In some instances, I also provide sculptures made of Stainless Steel, Iron Resin and other types of resin, and also bronze plated with silver or gold.

I pick materials that are hard-wearing, as almost all my larger sculptures are designed to go outside, in the garden. So it is important that the statue’s material is weather-resistant and will last a long time. 

Where are the sculptures made?

All the statues are sculpted by me in clay or wax in my studio in the UK.

They are then moulded, either here, most likely by mould maker Al Maddocks, or when they are taken to a resin-caster or bronze foundry in the UK.

My ‘cold cast’ Bronze Resin sculptures are made by either Carter Mouldings (Somerset, UK), Opus Studio (Somerset, UK) or Graeme Lougher (Surrey, UK).

My Foundry Bronze metal statues are made by either Art of a Fine Nature (Somerset, UK), Castle Foundry (Gloucestershire, UK), Milwyn Foundry (Surrey, UK), Paul Kennedy Studio (Shropshire, UK), The Lost Foundry (Devon, UK).

Stainless steel sculptures are made by Lockbund Foundry (Oxfordshire, UK).

In the case of the largest Foundry Bronze public sculptures, these may be made by HVH Foundry (Czech Republic, EU)


What is the lost wax method?

The “lost wax” method is a very, very old traditional method of casting metal. It involves the ‘loss’ or melting out of wax from a cavity, into which molten metal may be poured.

Bronze metal has long been a favourite for casting because, as an alloy of copper and tin, it is liquid enough when heated to a high temperature that it will ‘run’ and fill the extremities of an intricate mould.

Bronze is also a traditional favourite for its colour, and because it does not corrode like other metals when exposed to weather as outdoor sculpture.

Hot metal of any type will burn and destroy a rubber mould, however. So part of the bronze casting process involves casting wax sculpture from the rubber mould, and then using the wax to create a new, one-use ceramic mould. 

This new ceramic mould will be heat-resistant, so heat can be used to melt the wax out of it, and then hot molten metal can be poured inside. 

When this metal has cooled the one-use ceramic mould can be chipped off, leaving the cast metal sculpture.

The wax is melted out

How long does it take to make a statue?

The time it takes to make a sculpture depends on the size, on the length of time designing it before I start, on the level of detail, on the number of amendments needed, and on the time taken to mould, cast and finish your statue.

Broadly a lifesize dog sculpture might take one month to sculpture, a month to mould and three months to cast. A large public statue might take much longer. While strangely, a small mantlepiece-size sculpture takes roughly the same time as a life-sized dog sculpture – the detail is much the same, but modelled using smaller tools! 

Usually, I have several sculptures in progress at any one time. This allows me to keep my eye fresh, so my perception of how the modelling is progressing isn’t blinded by looking at one sculpture for too long. 

Additionally, if I have several commissions scheduled, it may take some time to reach a newer commission. This is why I currently expect it to take 15 months to create a bespoke statue. 

Can you make a statue of my dog, or cat?

Absolutely. The majority of the dog and cat sculptures that you see on my website were originally commissioned as bespoke, custom statues of people’s pets.

Commissioning a sculpture can be quite expensive, however, and it is often worth looking at the sculptures that I have already made, to see if I already have a statue that looks like your dog or cat.

I have some detailed information about custom dog sculpture commissions here on my dog commissions page. There, you can find some information on pricing, sizes, possible materials, and creation times.

Can you sculpt a deer, hare, horse or other animal sculpture for me?

I’d be very interested in hearing from you – wildlife and domestic animal commissions do get preferential rates and I’d be really happy to speak about sculpting your idea for you.

Click here for more information on custom animal sculptures and get in touch with me for a quote.


Can you make me a unique, 1 of 1 edition statue?

I can. Unique statues are most common for large public statues – where a company or council’s budget can pay for artist’s time and the mould making for the one unique sculpture.

For many commissioners, this cost would be too much, and they welcome the ability to spread the cost. So if the sculptor assumes they might sell four or five copies of the sculpture later (hopefully more!) then they can split some of the costs over the next few assumed sales.

While the commissioner may still pay more than a later buyer, they are receiving edition 1 of a totally bespoke statue, and by accepting an edition, they have achieved a more affordable price.

Unique sculptures are generally about 4 times more expensive than sculptures with an edition. But, if it is important that your development, home or company stand out with a unique piece of artwork that beautifully summarises what makes your site, an edition 1 of 1 statue might be perfect. Here is a link to my public sculpture commissions page.

Do you teach sculpture classes?

No, I do not teach any more.

I founded The Art Academy in London, and I taught the skills I’d been privileged to learn from seven years apprenticing with my sculptor parents.

I now focus on my art practice full time, and happily have my hands full, so no longer teach. Though two books have many of the lessons I learned and taught – ‘Modelling and Sculpting the Human Figure’, also available in German and French, and ‘The Artist’s Manual’.

How do you make a back iron?

Most sculptures require support. For a large sculpture with lots of clay on it, this might be a heavy duty support – called a back iron – which is often made of strong steel.

In a smaller sculpture, support may not be necessary. Or a support might be made using thicker copper or aluminium wire, for example.

If the back iron is not well made, the sculpture can collapse during sculpting, or, if the clay needs to travel for moulding, it could collapse during transportation.

So a rigid steel internal or external frame is needed. This must be designed to support any limbs, head, tail, or part of the sculpture that requires internal strength.

It can also be designed so that the back iron stays physically out of the way of the artist when they are sculpting, so they can reach the whole surface of the sculpture to model. It can also be designed to cause minimal interruption to that surface (meaning fewer corrections are needed to fix the surface later in the casting process).


How do you make an armature?

An armature normally consists of:

– a sculpting board, usually ply wood, which creates a flat surface that you can screw in to, and also carry the sculpture with.

– a back iron, usually steel, which is very strong and will hold each part of the statue up.

– and wire, which creates a more flexible, fleshed out internal skeleton for the sculpture, and may contain filler, like pieces of recycled polystyrene.

Clay is heavy, and will collapse under its own weight if applied thickly, with no support. The armature shaping firstly allows me to use less clay, as this thiner external clay layer will grip an internal layer of chicken wire very reliably.

I use thick aluminium wire to create flexible parts of the armature skeleton. They are strong enough to support some weight, but they are bendy enough for me to move them unto the limbs of a sculpture are placed just right.

I use thin steel and copper wire for non-supporting structures – creating grip on the aluminium wire, by winding a spiral of thin wire around for the clay to hold onto. Or to fill in a gap between a triangle shaped piece of thick wire – to support the clay for a dog’s ear, for example.

Does anything ever go wrong during sculpting?

It certainly can. The modelling stage of a sculpture has its technical challenges.

Clay is very heavy when used in bulk. While it sticks to itself and to textured surfaces, if clay is too thick it can fall off an armature in huge pieces. For example, the amount of clay I used on the mother deer’s chest was too deep and a vast section peeled off overnight – leading to a lot of armature redesign using chicken wire and polystyrene filler, and a lot more work!

I have had a clay sculpture collapse in transit, which is a ‘never-again’ moment that required enormous effort and time resculpting. Hard wax is far easier to transport, but with the lovely texture of clay, learning the technical lessons of proper back iron support and better techniques moving larger statues has been invaluable.

Possibly one of the more emotional moments was the loss of. a brand new rubber mould in a foundry fire. Moulding destroys the original clay sculpture and the destruction of the mould before casting meant no casting was ever made! I had to start again from scratch.

On a less technical level, manipulating wire can cause occasional injury to my hands, and thinking about how to sculpt a really big sculpture requires all the kind of work-at-height and machinery considerations you get in other work environments to stop things going wrong! 

Can you make a statue in concrete, lead, silver, iron, stone?

While it is certainly possible for me to use other metals, concrete and stone in large public sculptures, when it comes to smaller sculptures for sale such as life-sized dogs and animals, no I do not make concrete, lead, iron or stone statues.

I am able to plate bronze using precious metals like gold and silver.

I saw a statue I liked elsewhere, can you make it? - Work by other artists

While I cannot copy another artist’s work, I am happy to take broad inspiration from a sculpture that you have seen and have really liked. I will also show you several alternative ideas which might capture the feeling you get from seeing it, and you may find you discover a statue design you like even more.

In exceptional cases, such as where the sculpture you loved is very old and the statue I make will have particularly emotional significance – such as as a memorial for a loved one who has passed away – then I may consider being more closely led by another artist’s work. I will still indicate areas where I think the sculpture would work even better if it was different, and will talk those things through with you to ensure you get something uniquely personal, that really fits in your space.

Can you make a copy of a sculpture I own? - Work by other artists

While I don’t copy other artist’s sculptures, I am very happy to look at creating something for you that will complement an existing statue, or alternatively to make a pair of replacement sculptures for you.

If you still want to make a copy, firstly try to find out if the copyright is still in place for the sculpture. You can do this by typing ‘how long does copyright last for statues in [your country]. For example, you may be breaking copyright if your laws say the work is protected for the artist’s lifetime plus 70 years, as it is here in the UK.

But if your sculpture is very old, then you may well be able to find a mould-maker who will agree to mould it for you. 

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Making a purchase

What is the difference between 'cold cast' Bronze Resin and Foundry Bronze metal?

Bronze Resin – bronze metal powder is mixed with a resin to create the appearance of foundry bronze metal, but is more affordable and lightweight.

Foundry Bronze metal  – refers to the poured molten metal that is cast solid or hollow, depending on size, at a bronze foundry (using the traditional lost wax process). It is more robust and will appreciate in value.

You can tell whether a sculpture is Foundry Bronze metal by:
– the sound,
– and the colour,
– but not always by temperature,
– and not always by the weight.

Learn more about the difference between ‘cold cast’ Bronze Resin and Foundry Bronze metal here…

How can I pay?

While on the sculpture page, click the button to place a sculpture in the bag. This will take you to a checkout page that will show you shipping costs, and can calculate any additional costs like customs you may wish to consider before you purchase.

We accept debit cards and credit cards, including American Express, through Stripe or through Paypal’s card payment function.

You can pay directly by bank transfer.

You can pay using a Paypal account.

We can take a payment over the phone, but we must first create your invoice as we use the same payment link that you would use to pay for a card payment. We can arrange a time to pay over the phone with you in advance.

We accept cheques for commissions, but aren’t able to accept cheques for normal sales internationally.

Why are statues so expensive?

A statue in the materials I offer can appear expensive because of the type of material it is made in.

More affordable materials include cast iron, concrete and fabricated steel as the making of these is cheaper, and the skills needed aren’t often quite so high. The biggest problem is, those materials don’t tend to capture a lot of detail.

Traditionally Foundry Bronze metal was the outdoor material that lasted the longest (centuries) but also captured extremely detailed sculpting marks, down to the lines in the sculptor’s fingerprint.

While I do provide traditional Foundry Bronze metal sculptures, (which are a lot more expensive,) the Bronze Resin material is a modern imitation material that uses Bronze powder and resin to create a sculpture that looks very similar to a bronze metal sculpture in colour, that still has the really high level of modelling detail. It is also still pretty robust material and is designed to last outdoors for 20 years.

The skills needed to cast sculpture, including Bronze Resin, are reasonably rare, which means it isn’t cheap to make. Also, you are paying for my experience in finding the right casters. Like anything, statues can be made quite badly (air bubbles, uncured resin, lack of reinforcement, bad seam lines, or the filler or reinforcing inside missing, are all things I have seen), and I use all my experience to ensure I provide the best-made sculpture to my clients.

As artwork is relatively fragile where courier handling is concerned, they aren’t easy to ship, and so the box they travel in is quite large.

The sculpture is also made by an artist, rather than a company – and that tends to mean the price is higher than something made by a factory.

Also, an individual artist’s reputation makes it cost a bit more, but you are generally getting something that looks better.

There are positives though, other than what I hope is a lovely, high-quality sculpture:
I try to ensure my clients are happy, so you aren’t taking risks with shipping and not hearing back if it gets lost or damaged. If in a couple of years it becomes obvious I missed some kind of defect, I’m not going to leave you stuck. Because I sort all that out.

With larger outdoor statues you’ll also receive a complimentary care box and care instructions, (minus the wax tin as they don’t like liquids on the plane), and I’m really happy for you to get in touch anytime in the future about caring for your statue. I also donate 10% of all my sales proceeds to animal charities, and in this case that goes directly to helping rescue dogs from really difficult circumstances.

Can I pay over the phone?

Yes, we can take a payment over the phone.

Some people prefer to pay for a sculpture over the phone, for security reasons, or because they seldom use a computer.

When you pay over the phone, we must first create your invoice as we will input the information using the same payment link that you would normally use to pay for a card payment.

We can arrange a time to pay over the phone with you in advance.

If you are happy to receive a payment link by text, this is also possible too.

Are there customs duties, taxes or fees?


– Zero US customs fees.

– For large statues, expect a small storage fee of $100 USD while customs checks the shipment.



– UK sales tax (VAT) of 20%

– No customs duties, fees or taxes.


Northern Ireland

– Import sales tax of 20% will be charged


European Union  (Including Germany, France, Italy, Spain, Ireland, Netherlands, Belgium, Portugal, Denmark)

– Import sales tax will be charged of around 20%

– An ‘administration fee’ of about 15 euros is likely



– State import sales tax will be charged of around 15% (depending on the state)



– Import sales tax will be charged of around 10%


New Zealand

– Import sales tax will be charged of around 15%


Norway & Sweden

– Import sales tax will be charged of around 25%


United Arab Emirates

– Customs duties of around 5%

– Import sales tax of around 5%

Can I see the statue somewhere local to me?

If you are in the UK, we are happy to provide the sculpture and return it for a refund minus return shipping, so that you are able to see whether it works in your garden or home.

There are places you may be able to see the sculpture you are interested. Get in touch to find out more. 

At different times we exhibit sculptures in the UK at:

– Carmarthenshire, Llandovery (our studio)

– Gloucestershire, Cirencester – Cotswolds Contemporary

– Gloucestershire, Somerford Keynes – Cotswolds Sculpture Park (garden)

– Gloucestershire, Tetbury – Wadham Trading

– Kent, Tunbridge Wells – Artique Gallery

– Lincolnshire, Doddington – Doddington Hall (garden)

– Lincolnshire, Stamford – Adrian Hill Gallery

– London, Adrian Hill Gallery at the British Art Fair 

– Norfolk, Holt – Adrian Hill Gallery

– Northumberland, Newcastle – Aura Fine Art

– Nottinghamshire, Nottingham – Aura Fine Art

– Oxfordshire, Burford – Cotswold Contemporary

– Pembrokeshire, Newport – The Gallery Yr Oriel

– Powys, Hay-on-Wye – Lion Street Gallery

– Somerset, Bruton – Moorwood Art (garden)

– Suffolk, Helmingham – Art for Cure (garden)

– Surrey, Churt – The Sculpture Park (garden)

– Warwickshire, Stratford-Upon-Avon – Aura Fine Art

Is it safe to order a statue online?

It is not safe everywhere to order a statue online.

There are two common protections: firstly, if you look at the top bar in your browser window and find the website address (or URL) you will see a padlock icon.

The padlock (called https) shows firstly that information passed to and from your computer and the website is encrypted. Making it harder for a hacker to steal your card details. It also shows that the person setting up the website has been checked by a company that specialising in verifying that they are not providing fake details.

Secondly, using secure payment systems (like Stripe or Paypal) will provide an extra layer of security for your sculpture payment. These tools prevent important card information like your security code from being handled by the website itself.

Lastly, you may wish to consider placing your order using a credit card. Most credit cards provide a private individual additional security for your payment.

You can take other common sense steps too if you aren’t sure, like:

– Call the artist

– If you are ordering from another country, ask if they have any protections in place to help ensure you receive your sculpture and ask what happens about breakages or returns

– Type the website’s address into a website trust score tool, online

Can I change my order (e.g update address)?

You are very welcome to get in touch to change your statue delivery address.

Please let us know as soon as possible, as it is very easy to change the address before the sculpture leaves. It is very difficult to change the address once the statue is already in transit. 

Can I cancel my order?

Yes, you can cancel your statue order.

Please get in touch as soon as possible, as will might be able to prevent the sculpture being shipped to you.

How much does this statue weigh?

The statues are handmade and weight can vary. However, if you get in touch to ask about the sculpture’s weight, we can weigh it for you and let you know (in both metric kilogrammes and imperial pounds).

If you are asking about the weight because you are thinking about how heavy the statue is to move, then please let us know that. Similarly, if you are thinking about the weight because you are concerned about whether the sculpture could be blown over in the wind, please tell us. We will be able to give you a more in-depth answer and better advice if you can let us know why you would like to know the weight of the statue.

Can you make this statue into a trophy?

Yes, we can make statues into trophies. Sculptures on bases with plaques also make excellent personalised leaving gifts. If you would like a sculpture to be made into a trophy, please get in touch and we will speak to you about choosing a type of base and a short phrase for a plaque.

Most of our sculptures can be mounted; bases can come in a variety of materials, including wood and several types of stone, like granite, slate and marble.

Self-adhesive brass plaques are the most simple way to place text on a statue. There are a variety of fonts and plaque designs that can be used, but they require a flat or gently curved surface – meaning they require a base, to be stuck on.

The best material for a trophy that will be used over many years in Foundry Bronze metal.

Can you turn a dog into a girl, or into a boy?

Yes, I can turn a lifesized dog into a female or a male for a small fee, though it would need to be a new casting so you would have to wait for about 8 weeks.

Can you change this dog statue to look more like my dog?

I generally can’t make an existing sculpture look more like your dog. For example, I cannot change the size. This is because the sculpture will be cast from a mould of a pre-existing sculpture and will come out looking the same each time. 

But there are some small exceptions – so it is still worth asking.

For some ‘cold cast’ Bronze Resin statues I might be able to shorten the statue’s tail.

There is a slightly greater range of things I can change when you order a Foundry Bronze metal sculpture. This is because there is an additional casting stage – the wax stage. Wax is malleable, so some alternations might be achieved. 

If you contact me then I will be able to talk through what amendments might be possible. Amendments do cost extra, but I can quote for that extra work, so that you have all the information you need to make your decision.

Can you make a smaller or larger version of this statue?

I am not able to change the size of a sculpture, or make a large or smaller version of something without making a new sculpture.

However, I am happy to quote for a bespoke commission like this.

The reason for this limitation is that the sculpture you are looking at is a copy of an original statue made of clay or wax. This malleable original was destroyed when a mould was taken of it. Copies can be made using the mould, but these copies cannot be reduced in size or enlarged.

For a larger or smaller sculpture, I would need to create a brand new sculpture, and this requires additional costs – the artist’s sculpting time, and the mould-making. It also takes a while to do – at the moment I have about 15 months of work, so I would not be able to finish something before then.

If you are interested, then I can talk about this with you – you may have some ideas that would improve your appreciation of the sculpture – and might prefer a more customised sculpture commission anyway.


What to look for in a statue

Choosing a statue involves considering several factors, including:

– How much you or a giftee will enjoy having it

– Price

– The quality of the sculptor’s modelling

– The quality of the casting

– Longevity and maintenance requirements

– And possible future increase in value

I represent a gallery, can we show your sculptures?

Certainly, I’d be happy to hear from you.

I generally limit myself to exhibiting through physical UK galleries, as managing the transportation of my artwork is much easier. I do exhibit online, through international galleries and platforms. 

For your information, I do not normally show at short fortnight or month-long exhibitions. Nor do I pay for gallery space, shows or stands at fairs. This is simply because I already show at a lot of lovely galleries!

If you would like to contact me, it would be great if you could let me know your terms and conditions when you email.

It would also be very helpful if you could give me an idea of the style or type of sculpture you feel your clients would respond well to, and ideally, the kind of price range that you sell most work at, so I can help work out what might work best for you.

I found this cheaper on another website

Please be very careful when you see significantly cheaper prices for a statue on another website. If the difference is large, it is a scam – someone has taken photos of this website and used them to advertise a fake, or even non-existent products.

We make a promise to our galleries that the price will be the same everywhere.

Legitimate reasons for small differences in price are:

– differences in shipping costs

– differences in exchange rates

– unusual ways a website calculates taxes

Please avoid any statues on Amazon that look like a company has listed it (often Chinese companies). Please avoid websites that look like online marketplaces that you have never used before. Never, ever, buy from a website with no contact information, or address information. 

I ordered from another website and it doesn't look anything like the photo (counterfeits and fakes)

I’m very sorry to hear that you have ordered a sculpture that isn’t what you expected. 

If you suspect you have been the victim of a counterfeit, or scam – please notify google so that they can take down the website. Here are some ways that you can do this.

I’d be grateful to hear what happened so I can take a look at what you received and report the site. 

I'm looking at a large statue, can I pay a deposit?

For clients in the UK buying larger sculpture, yes, we do accept payment of a deposit – Usually 50% – with final payment due after receipt of the statue.

For our international clients, such as those in the USA or EU, we normally try to ensure full payment has been made before the sculpture leaves the UK.

For bespoke commissioned statues, we always split payment into the deposit or deposits, and then the balance. Again, we normally try to ensure that international commissioners outside the UK have settled the balance for their commission before their sculpture is shipped.

In some circumstances, where a payment plan has been arranged and an international client will be paying by instalments, we are happy to deliver your sculpture before payment of the final balance. This is determined on a case-by-case basis in conversation with you, so you are welcome to ask about it.

Can I have a discount?

One of the biggest advantages of buying directly from the artist is that you can find out whether a discount is available on a statue.

Sometimes there are special circumstances which might make a discount possible, such as when we are able to secure a favourable price from a resin caster or foundry by ordering more of a sculpture. So we are happy to talk to you about a discount for your sculpture – when you enquire there may be another client who is similarly interested in one, for example. And this kind of sculpture discount can make a big difference when buying the more expensive foundry bronze metal material.

What is an edition?

An edition is a run of copies of an original sculpture. A Limited Edition limits the number of copies,  the smaller the length of the edition, the more expensive a sculpture will be.

Also, the smaller the edition, the more a statue is likely to appeal to collectors or investors, who perceive the value of a sculpture is higher if only a few people will ever own it.

The edition will be the same on each material that we cast in – for example, an edition of 25 allows 25 on the bronze resin, but it will also allows 25 on the foundry bronze.

We offer our range of smallest sculptures as ‘open edition’. Open means that they are potentially unlimited. This enables the smaller pieces to have much smaller margins, and so people are able to buy them closer to cost price.

We never edition by colour. For example, sculptures sold elsewhere might be ‘edition 12’ – but there will 12 foundry bronze casts coloured green and 12 foundry bronze casts coloured blue and so on. We don’t feel this is a good practice as it could mislead a collector or investor.

Click here to learn more about bronze statue editions.

Will the price go up if I wait?

No, I do not teach any more.

I founded The Art Academy in London, and I taught the skills I’d been privileged to learn from seven years apprenticing with my sculptor parents.

I now focus on my art practice full time, and happily have my hands full, so no longer teach. Though two books have many of the lessons I learned and taught – ‘Modelling and Sculpting the Human Figure’ and ‘The Artist’s Manual’.

Can I pay in instalments?

No, I do not teach any more.

I founded The Art Academy in London, and I taught the skills I’d been privileged to learn from seven years apprenticing with my sculptor parents.

I now focus on my art practice full time, and happily have my hands full, so no longer teach. Though two books have many of the lessons I learned and taught – ‘Modelling and Sculpting the Human Figure’ and ‘The Artist’s Manual’.

Will I receive a confirmation email?

If you order your statue online you will receive a payment receipt, a confirmation email showing your order, and then an email to say that your sculpture has been sent to you, which will provide you with tracking information.

If you do not hear from us, please get in touch, so we can check for you.

When will this statue be back in stock?

It is best to email me to aks when I will be able to get a sculpture to you which is currently out of stock. Because if you are in a rush, I may have one at a gallery, or there may be one I am already making that is nearly finished.

If that is not the case then normally, we can make a: 

– small resin sculpture in 5 weeks.

– small foundry bronze sculpture in 9 weeks.

– larger resin statue in 9 weeks

– larger bronze statue in 16 weeks

What does 'backorder' mean?

Sculptures that are not available can be made for you. If you have a tight timeline please get in touch.

‘Backorder’ means that if you place an order, we will start to make your statue to order. Your statue will be prioritised above our normal casting and you will receive the statue as quickly as we can make it.

Casting timelines can vary, and there may also be some travel time involved in getting a mould to a resin caster or foundry, then quality checking the casting and collecting your statue.

At the fastest we can make most:

– small resin sculptures in 5 weeks.

– small foundry bronze sculptures in 9 weeks.

– larger resins in 9 weeks

– larger bronzes in 16 weeks

Can you put a base onto this sculpture?

In most cases, yes we can provide a base for your sculpture – though these will take a little time to make.

Currently the most popular options for bases are black polished granite, slate, wood and white marble.

Please get in touch – we would be happy to talk to you about your options.

Do you have plinths available for sale?

We have raw spruce wood plinths available in two sizes for delivery within the UK:

– 600mm x 200mm x 1000mm high, which is used for sculptures like ‘Trust’ Woman with Fawn

– and 300mm x 300mm x 1000mm high, which is used for sculptures like ‘Tenderness’ Woman with Rabbit

I can make some recommendations about places to purchase plinths, and most clients prefer to build them themselves using brick with a flagstone top, or another type of stone sympathetic to their garden setting.

How do I keep my statue safe? - Securing your sculpture

The vast majority of theft is preventable, and so it is important to consider:

  1. Where you place your sculpture
  2. What security you put in place
  3. Whether you can make it difficult for a sculpture to be stolen intact
  4. And sculpture recovery

Learn more about securing outdoor sculptures here…

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Do you ship to the USA / Europe / elsewhere?

I ship my sculptures all over the world.

If you would like to place a statue into the bag, you will find that you can see the shipping costs to your country.

Also, while you are on the checkout page, you will be able to estimate the likely customs duties, fees and taxes that will be chargeable when your sculpture reaches your country.

If you are in any doubt, please contact me. I’d be happy to advise you, and I will also be able to give you a shipping discount if you get in touch regarding purchasing multiple statues.

How can I track my sculpture?

When we send you your sculpture we will provide you with a tracking number. This will either be a courier tracking number (like Fedex), which you can look up on their site, or it will be a parcel broker tracking number (such as Transglobal Express, or World Options), which you can also look up on their website.

If you have not received your package and the tracking information has not updated for several days, please get in touch. It may be stuck, and couriers are very bad at communicating why.

There are several things that we can try to get it moving again.

How long does delivery take?

If a sculpture is small and can be put in a cardboard box, our time to pack and send it is likely to be only three or four working days.

A larger sculpture that needs to be crated, or we intend to hand deliver, may take a week or two to send.

Broadly the fastest delivery is to the UK and the USA. This might only be a few days. For the largest dog- sized sculptures and even larger sculptures, delivery may take several weeks.

My largest sculptures like the Stag, which cannot travel air freight, must travel by sea. Sea freight may take a month or potentially three if you are far away from the UK.

Damage or loss in transport

If your sculpture is damaged or lost in transport we will offer you the choice of a replacement, or a full refund.

This may require a return at our cost, depending on the damage and the cost of return delivery if international.

In the majority of cases, we will be able to replace the sculpture quickly. However, if a replacement sculpture is not available immediately, then we will make it for you. We will provide an estimated completion time, so you will be able to make an informed decision about what you would like to do.

If you live outside of the UK and it appears the damage is cosmetic, then we may speak with you about whether you would be willing for us to send the sculpture to an experienced local resin caster or bronze foundry for an opinion. If we are satisfied that a repair will be stronger than the original pieces, and the longevity of the sculpture will not be impacted, we will speak to you about whether you are happy for us to pay for the repair, or would prefer the replacement or the full refund.


How can I feedback about my statue?

I would love to hear from you if you have had good or bad feedback about your sculpture or your delivery. 

It is really important that we keep trying to improve our client’s experience and hearing from you is the quickest way to find out if something is working badly, or well!

Your feedback will be looked at directly by myself or my husband, so if you have anything you’d like to say it will definitely be heard.

I also really love to receive photos of your statue in situ!

I can't see a signature on the statue

If you cannot see a signature on your sculpture, please let me know and I will either help you find it. Or, in the very unlikely event it hasn’t been signed, I will arrange a return and replacement.

There is a chance that my oldest sculptures did not have a signature, and only a certificate of authenticity. If this is the case for your sculpture and you have misplaced the certificate or you do not think you received one, please get in touch. I will send you a replacement certificate of authenticity, and a complimentary cleaning kit too. 

Can I collect my sculpture from your studio?

Yes, you can certainly arrrange to collect your sculpture from my studio. The address is in mid-Wales, in the United Kingdom – Moelfre, Cynghordy, Llandovery SA20 0UW.

Let me know in advance that you would like to collect your statue and we can arrange a time that will suit you.

Can I have a discount for delivery of multiple sculptures?

Please tell me if you plan to order multiple sculptures, there should be some savings on the delivery if they can be transported in the same box and I would love to pass these on to you.

How do I install a statue onto concrete?


This is a general guide to installing my statues on pre-existing concrete using standard fixings of threaded rod and glue.

All the glues below are appropriate, but some are better for different installations. The choice of glue you use among other factors, such as temperature, damp and strength required, is
dependent on how fast you would like it to cure. If you want a lot of time to make sure it is correct then the Tenax type glue would be better. If you are confident about the installation and you have done all the pre-checks before final applying glue then the other 2 types of glue, that premix in the nozzle would be much easier to use:
– SikaAnchorFix®-1 – Quite fast, reliable, easy mix adhesive.

– Easyfix Kempsc 175ef – Quite fast, reliable, easy mix adhesive. Good for damp conditions

– Tenax Domo 10 – much longer curing time, strong, weather resistance, less easy mixing and application

Required for installation:

– Pencil

– Padding to protect sculpture

– Hammer drill

– Masonry drill bits

– Something to clean dust from drilled holes (the drill bits used slowly, a cloth, your mouth to blow, or compressed air)

– Enough helpers to easily handle the statue

– Small tool/spatula and cloth or paper to clean any errant glue. 

– If using the Tenax glue – mixing pots and spatulas for placing in the holes

Installation guide:

1. Familiarise yourself with the threaded rods and their receptors underneath the sculpture. While checking the underside, rest the sculpture on a padded surface to prevent scratching.

2. Place the sculpture in required positions without the threaded rods in the holes. 

3. Move and rotate the sculpture around until you are absolutely happy with the orientation and position.

4. Check that the sculpture is sitting flat. If the concrete is not level, then you may need to use spacers to level it. Spacers should be of a robust material like stone, hard plastic, or stainless steel.

5. Once all checks are complete, accurately mark the concrete at several places on outside edge of sculpture. Mark a directional arrow following a tail or outstretched limb. 

6. Remove sculpture and place threaded rods into receptors on base.

7. Lift sculpture into place on concrete and mark location of the threaded rods on concrete. If any threaded rods are clearly not vertical, extend the circular marking into an oval in the direction of the lean back upwards to the receptor. This hole will need to be drilled using a larger diameter bit.

8. Remove sculpture and drill holes to the required depth of the pins.

9. Remove as much dust from the hole as possible (do not use water, use the drill bit a cloth, blowing, or compressed air, keep the hole dry).

10. Place sculpture back with the pins going through the base plate and into the holes.

11. Check that everything is correct and the threaded rods sit properly in the holes with the sculpture sitting flat on the concrete. DO NOT PUT PRESSURE ON THE THREADED RODS to force them into the holes, but enlarge the holes to suit them.

12. Remove the sculpture and put the chosen adhesive into the holes (quickly if using the faster-setting glue). Depending on the diameter of the holes fill them about 1/2 full to 2/3rds full with glue. Excess may be smeared on the threaded rods.

13. Whilst glue is still wet immediately place the sculpture back with the threaded rods pushed into the holes, pushed down as far as they will go.

14. Quickly check that the sculpture is still in the correct position, flat and with the correct orientation. There may be a little leeway for correction.

15. Remove any glue that seeps put under the base plate or through the holes. Clean your tools thoroughly.

14. Leave glue to set. You can check how much the glue has set by checking the excess in your container. If the sculpture must be supported to remain at the chosen angle, then support the sculpture until the glue is dry.

Can I order with express delivery?

Express delivery is available for all my small sculptures domestically in the UK, and internationally to destinations like the USA.

Larger sculptures generally cannot be sent express. However, please contact me, because there may be different services that are faster which are available. 

If you can let me know what your deadline is, I will be able to advise whether we can meet that deadline, when a statue is likely to reach you, and what delays might arise through customs.

Which parcel delivery service do you use?

Most of our shipments are couried by UPS, DHL and Fedex.

Broadly, there is not a lot of choice when we ship internationally, because shipping for each part of the world varies hugely by courier.

If you have a preference, (because one service never delivers correctly locally), then please let us know and we will try to take this into account.

If a delivery fails, then we will try to book your replacement delivery through a different courier, if we can.

Our larger sculptures travel through palletised services, or in the case of the largest, through sea freight – and these may use services which are very local to the country or countries they are passing through.

Can I ask for delivery at a specific time?

The best way to ensure that your sculpture is delivered at a certain time is to pick two day consecutive weekdays when you are happy for your sculpture to be delivered.

For example, Monday and Tuesday, or Thursday and Friday.

We are able to book Next Day delivery for the UK, or 2-3 day delivery internationally for smaller sculptures internationally – this is the best chance of having the statue delivered when you expect it.

No ‘Next Day’ courier will guarantee arrival next day – so book delivery aiming for the first elected day, and if the courier is late, it is extremely likely delivery will be the following day.

None of the couriers will deliver during a certain time window. 

They will, however, repeat delivery 3 times if they miss you, and then the package will be stored at the depot for you to call and arrange delivery.

If you struggle with home delivery during weekdays, consider having a small sculpture delivered to your work address, or to your neighbour. You may also have previous arrangements with your local courier regarding delivery to a safe place when you are out (or to a neighbour). If you do not, consider communicating one to them.

For large sculptures, it may not be possible to ensure that they arrive at a specific time. Often because these are more likely to be delayed at customs. 

We will still try our best though! So please place a note on your order if purchasing through our website. Or email us so we can advise you on it.

The tracking shows delivered but I haven't received it.

I have personal experience of couriers claiming to have delivered (or attempted delivery), and I know this is one of the most frustrating things in the world!

I will help get your sculpture to you, or we will provide a replacement, or a refund, in discussion with you. 

Please send me all the details of what has, or hasn’t happened, so that I can try to find out what has occured. We will deal with the issue as swiftly as we possibly can!

The statue doesn't work in my home / I don't like it

Thank you very much for your interest! I’m sorry that it was not a good fit.

It is really important for me that you like your statue. If you have made your decision within two weeks, I am really happy to facilitate the return with a refund, minus the cost of return.

If you have made this decision after two weeks, then please get in touch as there may still be something to be done, depending on the individual circumstances.

If the statue is commission then as a custom piece of artwork, I may not be able to accept a refund and return. These sculptures can sometimes be incredibly bespoke, and I have to limit the circumstances in which you can return an undamaged sculpture when you have already approved it in the clay. But if this applies to you, please contact me, I will do everything I can to try to make you happy with your experience. I may even be able to recolour, resculpt, or amend it, or potentially arrange a partial or full refund – depending on the circumstances.


I want to complain about the courier

I am so sorry to hear you had a bad experience with your delivery. Please do send me your feedback. 

I am really happy to submit it to the courier company. I believe it is the only way that everyone’s experience of statue delivery (or any delivery) will improve!

Can you install my sculpture?

For larger sculpture in the UK, and for large public sculptures internationally, we are very happy to quote for installation.

Garden statues sold on our website are designed to be easy to install yourself. Most garden sculptures have attachable threaded bars which can be used for stability in soft ground.

Those threaded rods can alternatively be glued into concrete for security, or they can be bolted onto a hard surface.

Some of the largest statues for sale on our website have subframes – which are designed to be installed into soft ground for stability and security. These are predominantly designed to be easily installed by a one gardener with a spade, or two gardeners for heavier sculpture.

How do I safely move my statue?

When handling the statue remember to: 

– Use the right number of persons appropriate to the statue’s weight.

– Work out your path and final destination in advance.

– Prepare a padded surface at your destination if you will rest the statue on its side. Avoid scratching the statue by laying it directly on a hard surface.

– When moving the sculpture, move slowly through doorways, arches, corridors or restricted spaces – constantly check the extremities of the sculpture most likely to be scratched or impacted on the doorway / wall / object.

– If using a trolley, place padding on the trolley, and ensure you have helpers to hold the statue steady to prevent it falling off.

– When placing a statue down, place it down slowly, and completely flat. Bronze Resins particularly are delicate around the rim of the base – where chipping is very likely if placed down heavily or at an angle. This is the most frequent cause of lost toenails on dog statues.

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Can I return a statue I bought?

That’s absolutely fine. Let us know the circumstances.

If it is a breakage during shipping, then we are really happy to send you a replacement.

If you would like to return your statue because it doesn’t quite fit within your home, or garden, then let us know within 2 weeks of receiving your sculpture, and we will arrange a refund. We will deduct the cost of return shipping, and are really happy to talk through any part of this process.

If you have made this decision after two weeks, then please get in touch as there may still be something to be done, depending on the individual circumstances.

Will a return be collected from my house?

There are usually two options for returning a package, firstly collection from your address (this could be different from the original delivery address, it could be your work address, for example). 

Secondly, you may prefer to drop off your statue at a local shop for return. If this might be preferable to you, we can identify where you could drop off the package before you make a final decision.

Can I return a bespoke sculpture I commissioned?

If the statue is commission then as a custom piece of artwork, I may not be able to accept a refund and return. These sculptures can sometimes be incredibly bespoke, and I have to limit the circumstances in which you can return an undamaged sculpture when you have already approved it in the clay. But if this applies to you, please contact me, I will do everything I can to try to make you happy with your experience. I may even be able to recolour, resculpt, or amend it, or potentially arrange a partial or full refund – depending on the circumstances.

Can I get a refund?

Absolutely. Let us know why you would like a refund and we will be able to speak to you about what process might apply or work best for you. 

If it is a breakage during shipping, we are very happy to refund your purchase instead of sending you a replacement. This might be contingent on you returning the statue.

If you would like to return your statue because it doesn’t quite fit within your home, or garden, then let us know within 2 weeks of receiving your sculpture, and we will arrange a refund. We will deduct the cost of return shipping, and are really happy to talk through any part of this process.

If you have made this decision after two weeks, then please get in touch as there may still be something to be done, depending on the individual circumstances.

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Can this statue go outside?

Foundry Bronze sculpture lasts indefinitely outside. It is a very strong and durable material that stands extremely well to outdoor conditions.

Bronze Resin sculpture is designed to last outside for 20-25 years, and most last much much longer with good care. Depending on the shape some cracking may occur over time, if water pools constantly in one area,  some cracking may occur after a number of years, particularly along seam lines if water sits and then freezes.

Click here to learn more about the impact of weather on bronze statues here.

The temperature goes below freezing here

Foundry Bronze metal statues are excellent at withstanding extreme cold. 

Bronze Resin sculpture is very resilient to extreme cold, but it is not resilient to freezing water expanding in cracks. If water pools constantly in one area and then freezes then cracking may occur after a number of years. This is most often seen along seam-lines.

If you are experiencing extreme weather, and your garden bronze resin sculpture is portable, you might consider putting it under cover. For larger bronze resin sculptures, particularly those with buried subframes, it is likely easier to deal with the damage if it occurs, as the benefit of this material is its comparative simplicity to repair compared to Foundry Bronze.

Click here to learn more about the impact of weather on bronze statues here.

Will the sculpture remain stable in high winds?

While most sculptures are actually quite wind-resistant due to shape, we provide our garden sculptures with fixings to mitigate the impact of wind.

These fixings are usually receptors in the base of the sculpture for threaded bars – small threaded rods that can be screwed into the base of the sculpture. These stabilise a sculpture in soft ground, or can be glued into pre-existing hard surfaces, or bolted onto movable ones, like stone slabs.

Many of our larger sculptures are provided with subframes, which can be buried in the ground for stability against high winds. Additionally, we provide heavy-duty ground stakes, which can be placed in the hole over the subframe to supplement the statue’s stability. Root growth over time will only further help prevent these larger statues from being blown over. Larger statues installed on hard surfaces, concrete foundations or bolted onto stone slabs will be even more resilient to high winds.

Click here to learn more about the impact of weather on bronze statues here.

bronze resin threading for security


Can this statue stand up to extreme heat?

Foundry Bronze metal statues are excellent at withstanding extreme heat. Although, you might not wish to touch one at such high temperatures. Metal is a very good conductor of heat and can get very hot, so be careful of your fingers!

‘Cold cast’ Bronze Resin statues placed outdoors are less resilient to extreme temperatures than to extreme cold. With larger sculptures, the impact of high temperatures can be mitigated with more modern casting techniques. But, if you are in an area that experiences extreme heat, you might want to consider placing your Bronze Resin statue in a shadier location.

Indoor Bronze Resin sculptures can still be affected (though we’ve seen only a very, very small number) – it is easy to underestimate quite how hot something sitting in a very sunny window can become beneath the greenhouse effect of the glass.  Please note that this kind of cracking on indoor sculpture is fairly easy for us to diagnose if you send us photos, we may be able to offer more assistance.

Click here to learn more about the impact of weather on bronze statues here.


Can sunlight damage bronze?

Sunlight can cause colour to fade, but does not damage the surface of your Foundry Bronze or Bronze Resin, and replenishing the protective coating of wax annually will help prevent colour change.

The larger danger to Bronze Resin is heat caused by intense sun. Foundry Bronze metal is extremely resilient to this, but Bronze Resin can be affected by extreme heat. If your area experiences extreme heat, you might wish to consider placing an out door Bronze Resin in a shadier part of your garden.

In a very small number of case, indoor Bronze Resin sculptures sitting in very sunny windows have become so hot beneath the greenhouse effect of the glass that cracking has occurred. But this kind of damage is fairly easy for us to diagnose, so if you send us photos, we are very likely to be able to offer you assistance.

Click here to learn more about the impact of weather on bronze statues here.


I read bronze can be corroded by bronze disease

Neither Foundry Bronze metal or Bronze Resin corrodes in normal conditions.

There is a rare condition that can be suffered by a Foundry Bronze metal statue is chloride corrosion, known as ‘bronze disease‘. This sounds scarier than it is, because it is almost wholly limited to historic artifacts taken from the seabed and from shipwrecks.

For the purpose of this page on maintaining bronze sculpture, the best advice we can give is to avoid placing a foundry bronze statue in the sea or in a swimming pool.

If you do wish to place your sculpture there, consider a Bronze Resin, or even a non-cuprous (non-copper-based) resin like Stone Resin. Also, stone or concrete may also be preferable materials for in-pool or salt water statues. Excessive exposure to salt water or pool water by very near proximity (like beside the diving board, or a pool fountain) is also a good reason to use a different sculpture material. However, if you simply own a property on the coast or you have a pool somewhere in the garden, the waxing process will adequately protect your Foundry Bronze metal sculpture.

Which statue colours are best for outside?

Outdoors, it is important to know whether your statue will change colour over time in the sun and the weather. We consider it very important that clients know what they are buying, and do not like them to be surprised by a colour change.

Our experience shows us that the strongest, most weather and sun-resistant colour for outdoor sculpture is the traditional bronze colour and this is why we focus on this colour.

With Foundry Bronze metal, bronze colour change is likely to tend towards darkening or greening.

With ‘cold cast’ Bronze Resin, bronze colour change is more likely to tend towards fading.

Foundry Bronze metal statues that are not bronze colour are most susceptible to colour change. Colours are created with heat and chemicals. This makes them very susceptible to chemicals and temperatures that are part of day-to-day weather and our modern environment, (including at worst, acid rain, jet fuel dumping and smoke from fires). Currently, after bronze colour, we believe the next most reliable colours are blues and reds. Whites and greens are very likely to change. However, the specific caster who coloured the sculpture plays a huge role in the longevity of the colour – and this means there is very little consistency. We recommend, until we are persuaded otherwise, that you keep your coloured foundry bronzes inside. Arguably green verdigris is intended to whiten and streak, and is still a good outdoor colour, if you understand that it will not look the same as when you bought it.

A Foundry Bronze statue can be re-coloured, whatever colour it has become. The only reason our centuries-old street statues are black, is because they weren’t maintained, and re-colouring is not thought of (or perhaps not thought important).

The various Resin colours other than bronze colour, such as Iron Resin and Marble Resin tend to change much faster. The stone colours like sandstone and limestone tend to change the least. Iron resin changes very fast outdoors and will go from a dark red-hued brown, to a bright orange.

Bronze Swimming Otter Sculpture

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How do I keep my indoor sculpture clean?

– Dust your sculpture with a soft, long-bristled paint brush and/or a soft, lint-free cloth.

– Clean your sculpture using water and a soft brush.

– Do not use abrasive brushes, nylon pads or wire wool pads.

Do not use cleaning chemicals on your sculpture.

– After cleaning with water, dry the sculpture with an old towel to prevent streaks (or clean using deionized water).

If your sculpture is looking dull after several rounds of cleaning, you can restore its lustre using a clear wax like ‘Black Bison Wax – Neutral’.

– Apply a thin layer of wax using a stippling motion (a dabbing downward vertical motion) with a paint brush.

– Use a hairdryer to gently apply heat until the wax melts, to apply the wax in an even coat.

– Buff the sculpture once the wax has dried using a clean, soft bristled brush, like a boot or shoe brush.

– If your sculpture is made of Bronze Resin, take care with your brush when buffing as it is easy to bash your sculpture with the handle. You may wish to consider using a cloth instead.

– If parts of your sculpture turn green (verdigris), clean off the green with a stiff nylon brush and apply a wax with some stain in it.

– We have cleaning kits available and we would be very happy to hear from you in the future if you need advice.

How do I maintain my outdoor statue? (Both materials)

There is a detailed guide to maintaining your outdoor bronze statue here.

– Avoid placing your sculpture under an oak tree as tannins leech from oaks and can stain.

– Clean and wax your sculpture once a year (or more depending on local conditions, like being next to the coast).

– Clean your sculpture using water and a soft brush.

– Do not use abrasive brushes, nylon pads or wire wool pads.

– Do not use cleaning chemicals on your sculpture.

– After cleaning with water, dry the sculpture with an old towel to prevent streaks (or clean using deionized water).

– The nylon brush included in the cleaning kit is helpful for stubborn bird poo stains.

– Wax your sculpture using a clear wax like ‘Black Bison Wax – Neutral’ if you like the colour your sculpture is at the moment.

– Or if the colour looks a little faded then use a wax with some stain in it, like ‘Black Bison Wax – Medium Oak’

– Waxing is easiest to do on a hot sunny day because the heat helps with application of the wax. Apply a thin layer of wax using a stippling motion (a dabbing downward vertical motion) with a paint brush. This helps the wax reach inside the hollows without leaving a lot wax in them. Allow the warmth of the sculpture to melt the wax into the details.

– Buff the sculpture once the wax has dried using a soft bristled brush, like a boot or shoe brush.

– If your sculpture is made of Bronze Resin, take care with your brush when buffing as it is easy to bash your sculpture with the handle. You may wish to consider using a cloth instead.

My sculpture is going green

If you bought a bronze-coloured Foundry Bronze metal sculpture and it has turned green in places (called verdigris), but you do not like the colour, then rub the green area vigorously with a stiff nylon brush until most of the verdigris has come off in a dusty film.

Then select an appropriate wax with a stain – such as Black Bison Wax – Medium Oak, (rather than a clear wax) to deal with the verdigris residue still on that statue.

My statue is faded

Colour fading is more of an issue for ‘cold cast’ Bronze Resin statues, but sculptures in both materials will gather dust indoors or debris in the garden.

For a garden sculpture, the fading that you see is partly caused by the reduction or complete absence of the protective wax coating that is applied during annual maintenance.

Please see the ‘How do I maintain my outdoor statue? (Both materials) question in this section of the FAQ.

For indoor sculpture, the wax will reduce much more slowly, but if you are in the habit of regularly dusting your sculpture, then you may wish to consider an annual rewax too.

Please see the ‘How do I keep my indoor statue clean? question in this section of the FAQ.

In both cases, colour fading is most easily rectified using a wax with a stain in it. So for bronze-colour statues, using a Black Bison Medium Oak wax can revive the colour. Some experimentation with coloured waxes, like verdigris, may be appropriate for other coloured sculptures, though generally the simple clear Black Bison ‘Neutral’ Wax is recommended.

My statue is cracked

Please take a look at my guide here to look at approaches to dealing with cracks in a statue.

If your sculpture is brand new, please get in touch with me, (and I am still very happy to hear from you if it is not!).

My sculpture is broken

Please take a look at my guide here to look at identifying types of damage to sculptures, and if your sculpture is brand new, please get in touch with me, (and I am still very happy to hear from you if it is not!).

How do I clean bird poo off my statue?

The best way to clean bird poo off one of my statues is with a stiff nylon brush, (similar to the brush found in a dustpan and brush set – though these are usually too soft – I can send you stiff nylon brushes if you ask. The stiffness of the nylon brush is enough to break up the bird poo, while the nylon is soft enough not to scratch the surface of the sculpture.

After cleaning the bird poo off with a nylon brush, some stubborn residue may remain. If your statue is a bronze colour, you can apply a wax with a mid-stain in it – such as Black Bison Wax – Medium Oak.

It is a little unpleasant, but a fingernail is excellent for getting off the most stubborn residual bird poo.

Tanya cleaning a bronze dog sculpture

How long does it take to clean and wax my statue?

How long it takes to clean and wax a statue depends on the size, and the amount of time since the last clean and rewax.


– a windowsill or mantlepiece size sculpture takes two minutes to dust and wipe, or 20 minutes to clean, wax and buff.

– a small dog-sized sculpture up to a large dog statue takes about 40 minutes to clean, wax and buff.

– a large sculpture, like a stag takes about and hour and twenty minutes to clean, wax and buff.

– a very large public statue might take around four hours to clean, not including the time it takes to arrange and set up any scaffolding or boom lift.

Cleaning your statue will take you longer if it is your first try!

If you are familiar with cleaning your statue, there is equipment that can speed the process greatly, including heat guns. But using this equipment carries cost, and most importantly, risk – mainly to Bronze Resin statues.

What happens if I don't maintain my sculpture?

If you do not clean or wax your outdoor statue, then it will fade into your garden.

Colour will fade, and you may see a faster colour change with the Foundry Bronze metal.

Waxing helps to protect the material of a Bronze Resin sculpture against cracking.

In either case, if you do not maintain your statue, small blemishes will be more obvious. You are also likely to see an accumulation of bird poo.

What should I avoid when cleaning my sculpture?

Things to avoid when cleaning your statue are:

– Poor handling resulting in chipping or scratching your statue. Rest your statue on a padded surface and always take care when placing it down on its base to do so very gently, and as flat as you can.

– Never use cleaning chemicals on your statue. Clean your statue with water.

– Never use abrasive brushes on your statue. Use nylon brushes, which are good for bird poo, (like the brush in a dustpan and brush set) or paintbrushes, which are good for dusting and removing cobwebs.

– Never use abrasive cloths on your statue. Use soft cloths and boot brushes – but be very careful with the wooden handle of a boot brush. It can damage Bronze Resin detailing if you hit it against the sculpture during vigorous buffing.

– After cleaning your statue with water, towel the dirty water off. Leaving dirty water to dry will cause streaky marks, similar to what you see on a car.

Can I fix my own statue with glue?

Do not super glue your sculpture. It won’t work – the seam will be visible, and the attachment will be weak.

Contact me – there are straightforward if slightly more complex, ways to repair your sculpture with a much better result. It may even be possible to repair it so the damage is invisible!

Should I paint my statue?

Never paint your Foundry Bronze or ‘cold cast’ Bronze Resin statue. Ever.

If you paint your statue, you will create a matt surface that will look tacky. Use the cleaning and waxing process in your cleaning instructions.

I have a damaged statue made by someone else, will you fix it?

I don’t fix other people’s artwork, but I am happy to point you in the right direction towards someone who may be able to.

If you know who the artist was then they should be able to help you.

If you choose to get in touch about repairing someone else’s sculpture, then please attach several photos, and a photo of the certificate of authenticity if you have it. If you know what it is made of, that is also useful to know. It will help me understand better where to direct you.

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Are bronze statues good investments?

The view on buying artwork for investment is that it is a long-term investment with the benefit of its enjoyment while you own it.

The increase in value in an artwork is generally seen when it is not readily available for purchase. This can occur:

– if the statue is a unique, (a one-of-one edition)

– if the sculpture edition has sold out.

– or when the artist is quite old, or after their death.

Antique statues are normally the safest bet for investment, with the old masters granting the largest returns, due to their work’s iconic status and rarity.

Contemporary statues can enjoy enormous increases in value where an artist becomes fashionable, often through association with the origination, or the pinnacle of a contemporary art style. Well known examples include Jeff Koons’ ‘Balloon Dog’ and Damien Hirst’s ‘Lullaby Spring’ cabinet of pills.

These are exceptional examples, and for the majority of buyers, the expectation is lower, and more achievable: that they be able to buy a statue that they can afford, which they will enjoy, and which is very likely to increase in value.  

How can I sell my statue?

No, I do not teach any more.

I founded The Art Academy in London, and I taught the skills I’d been privileged to learn from seven years apprenticing with my sculptor parents.

I now focus on my art practice full time, and happily have my hands full, so no longer teach. Though two books have many of the lessons I learned and taught – ‘Modelling and Sculpting the Human Figure’ and ‘The Artist’s Manual’.

How can I tell if a statue is a fake? - Work by other artists

You may be able to tell a fake if the statue has not been signed by the artist, or if there is no certificate of authenticity. However, as both of these things can be counterfeited, they are not a reliable indicator that a statue is not a fake.

Some fake statues are badly made, and comparing the sculpture with photos of other statues in the edition may enable you to spot a fake. If the statue has been counterfeited using only photos, then much of the detail and even the size may be poorly replicated. A fake may not be in the correct material.

The best fakes may have been produced using original moulds (technically not fakes, but stolen – as frequently occurs when artists produce work in countries like China), or they may have been made with moulds taken from a sculpture purchased by the counterfeiter. These are harder to spot – detailing may be comparatively poorer, but this it not likely to be evident to the normal viewer.

For the most valuable statues, the provenance will help a great deal. A buyer history is often traceable, for instance. An expert may be able to judge the age of a casting. There may be available knowledge about the presence of fakes,  (which are often betrayed by the origin of the seller, or the quantity of fakes that are made and are available).

Fakes are most easy to spot when a sculpture in the edition is still being sold by the artist. If there is a large difference in price when comparing the artist’s price to the online price, for example, that is a very strong indicator the cheaper statue is a fake. Most artists have agreements with their galleries to sell their sculptures at the same price everywhere.

What is an artist's copy?

An artist’s copy is made for a reason other than sale as part of an edition. Common reasons are:

– as a reference copy – so that later castings can be checked against it for accuracy.

– as an exhibition copy, which is expected to be damaged by being handled and transported multiple times, sometimes by unspecialised hands.

– as correction copy, after a mould has been damaged, the artist or a contractor may work on casting to make corrections to bring it back closer to the original, before making a new mould of the corrected cast.

– to avoid the restriction of an edition (effectively a money-making excercise, capitalising on the popularity of an edition that has sold out.) 

If you are purchasing an artist’s copy as an investment, the above could be helpful in determining the value of your investment. Early editions can be valuable as moulds can deteriorate with time and use. A reference artist’s copy might in fact be the truest casting, the real ‘edition 1’. An exhibition copy may have been similarly made early. If undamaged, or if the damage has been repaired skillfully, the artist copy will be worth more than if damaged and poorly repaired. A correction copy is not likely to be wholly correct, but if worked by the artist has artistic value. A false ‘artist copy’ made to sell copies out of the edition will devalue the entire edition, and the artist’s entire portfolio of work.

Certificates of authenticity

I represent a gallery, can we show your sculptures?

Are some sculptures better than others for investment?

I represent a gallery, can we show your sculptures?

Is your work in any collections?

I represent a gallery, can we show your sculptures?

Will 'cold cast' Bronze Resin appreciate in value?

Generally ‘cold cast’ Bronze Resin will not appreciate in value in the way another investment might. The material itself is not inately valuable, and the material is too fragile to last a very long time wholly intact.

There are examples of Bronze Resins created by well known artists that have grown in value, but these are generally antiques and are often the only, or one of a very few, surviving ‘cold cast’ Bronze Resins.  

How can I tell if a foundry bronze statue is good quality?

The quality of a bronze statue is dependant on the quality of the original artists design and mark-making, the quality of the bronze casting, anf the quality of the bronze alloy used to make it. 

A high quality bronze will be look attractive, both conceptually and physically. It will have a wealth of artist marks and/or designs. It will be true to the artist’s original model, with both the shape and the mark-making been fully replicated in the foundry’s casting. The bronze metal used in that casting will be a resilient and long-lasting, unadulterated bronze alloy.

The calibre of a sculptor’s marks and design are subjective, and artists are generally judged individually, and by collective groups of people. That judgement of an artist’s calibre is not necessarily by consensus, and many artists have built a reputation during their lives, or after their deaths, by producing art that ran counter to the established notions of quality art.

After sculpting, there is a large amount of technical input into the production of a sculpture casting by people who are not the artist – such as mould makers and foundries. Poor quality bronze castings are often visibly defective, for example a seam line might be clearly present, or be poorly disguised by foundry tooling marks that are very dissimilar to the artist marks around it. Air bubbles, holes, cracks and other visible defects may also point to a poor quality bronze casting.

Generally you will be unable to tell the quality of the bronze alloy by sight unless the statue is very old. If you scratch the base of the statue fairly in a non-visible location, you should see a gold colour as bronze looks gold. A dull silver metal, brassy colour metal, or a powdery grey, bronze colour or white material may all indicate that the statue is not bronze at all. Alternatively a poor quality bronze alloy might be unnaturally soft, or may burn and smoke under the extreme heat of a welding torch.  An older bronze statue made with a poor alloy may reveal itself by doing things that quality bronze metal does not do, such as corroding, (not to be confused with turning green – verdigris is a common result of bronze, which has a high copper content, where rusting like a ferrous metal is not). 

Does the edition number affect the value?

Yes, the edition number can affect a statue’s value:

– early editions can be truer to the original clay or wax sculpture, as moulds can deteriorate with time and use. (This is less true of longer editions, such as 25 or more, where more than one mould is likely to have been made.)

– for the above reason, number 1 is commonly the most valuable of the castings. If the piece is a commission, this casting will also have additional provenance, such as an origin story, or historic significance.

– long editions and in particular unlimited editions, certainly limit the value of a statue. If many more exist or can be made, there will be a ceiling on the increase in value of a sculpture.

 – the significance of an edition number is affected by the material a statue is made of. An edition 1 of 5 statue made of paper may be less valuable than an edition 25 of 25 statue made of stainless steel. Particularly if the material with low longevity cannot easily be protected so that it lasts the test of time (and use).

– some numbers have particular importance to a society or culture. For example five, seven, twelve, twenty-eight and forty-two are considered lucky in many countries. Eight and twenty-six are examples of two numbers that have been associated with wealth. And lastly, of course, a number may have significance to the original buyer – the number of an anniversary, for example – but this individual significance is unlikely to affect the statue’s value on sale. 

Is the reputation of the artist important?

The reputation of the artist is the single greatest factor in the value of a statue. The sculptor’s reputation exceeds the material of the statue, the quality of the casting, and the state of repair in importance. 

The artist may be known individually for excelling in their area of practice, or they might be strongly associated with a cultural moment, a development in the recognition of a new style, technique or idea, or the revitalisation of an old one.

Alternatively the sculptor may be known for poor quality work, bad client experiences and misleading selling practices – though these would tend to contribute to absence of reputation, rather than an artist being well known!

Reputation cn


Where do you show your sculptures?

I represent a gallery, can we show your sculptures?

Is my statue worth anything? - Work by other artists

No, I do not teach any more.

I founded The Art Academy in London, and I taught the skills I’d been privileged to learn from seven years apprenticing with my sculptor parents.

I now focus on my art practice full time, and happily have my hands full, so no longer teach. Though two books have many of the lessons I learned and taught – ‘Modelling and Sculpting the Human Figure’ and ‘The Artist’s Manual’.

What material is my statue? - Work by other artists

No, I do not teach any more.

I founded The Art Academy in London, and I taught the skills I’d been privileged to learn from seven years apprenticing with my sculptor parents.

I now focus on my art practice full time, and happily have my hands full, so no longer teach. Though two books have many of the lessons I learned and taught – ‘Modelling and Sculpting the Human Figure’ and ‘The Artist’s Manual’.

What material is my statue? - Work by other artists

No, I do not teach any more.

I founded The Art Academy in London, and I taught the skills I’d been privileged to learn from seven years apprenticing with my sculptor parents.

I now focus on my art practice full time, and happily have my hands full, so no longer teach. Though two books have many of the lessons I learned and taught – ‘Modelling and Sculpting the Human Figure’ and ‘The Artist’s Manual’.